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Good Pasture Techniques = Good Milk Production

Thank you to Anna Williams, an Organic Valley farmer, for this blog on good pasture techniques. Anna's farm is 3 Sisters' Farm in Truxton, NY.

Shade, water, paddock size, traveling time, pest control, pasture quality, etc. These are all factors to making your cow’s summer either pleasant or painful. The ideal temperature for a dairy cow is between 60 to 70 degrees. Let face it, our summers get much higher than 70F, and a cow can’t strip down into a bikini and jump in the pool to keep cool and happy. The top three techniques to help your cows keep up with their good milk production are: paddock size, water, and pest control.

The size of a paddock depends on many variables: number of animals, grass height, weather conditions, paddock rest period. The paddock has to support every animal that is on it with feed (Dry Matter), space for them to lay down, and leave enough grass behind for it to grow back. Many pasture techniques are tied into the paddock size. The best rule of thumb? The taller the grass the less space, and the shorter the grass the more space is required for the animals.

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The Positives of Grass-Based Animal Agriculture on Carbon Sequestration


NOFA-NY is excited to share with you a guest blog post from expert organic farmer, Nathan Weaver.  Nathan and his wife  Kristine and family are Amish members of Organic Valley/ CROPP Cooperative and live in Canastota, NY.  Nathan is always willing to share his knowledge with other farmers and has often presented and participated on farmer discussion panels for NOFA-NY.  We thank Nathan for sharing his insights into raising dairy cows on grass and carbon sequestration.

Farmers, in our activities, share responsibility for the release of too much carbon into the Earth’s atmosphere. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) levels in the air have risen beyond 390 parts per million.   This level is over 40 p.p.m. greater than what is thought to be safe and sustainable for life on earth.  Most of science agrees that this is altering our climates’ weather patterns in negative ways. Long existing eco-systems are threatened and we are losing species in both the plant and animal kingdom.

Agriculture has understandably been blamed as a major contributor to the amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere.  The use of energy intensive equipment, methane belching ruminants, synthetic fertilizers, degradation of soils and soil organic matter and the long distance between where food is produced and where it is consumed have all been cited as major causes of our environmental troubles - much of modern agriculture as we know it.  I am pleased to be part of a cooperative (Organic Valley/ CROPP Cooperative) which is conscious of this. This has led us to being proactive in reducing our carbon footprint.  We have initiated some first steps by working with the farms within our care and realize that the conversation is just starting and there are many more solutions to be discovered.

A bright spot in agriculture is grass-based farming that relies on the benefits of grazing – optimal nutrition, animals harvesting their own feed and depositing their own manure and enjoying increased benefits to soil, animal and human health through the products produced by animals on grass.  The Rodale Institute in Pennsylvania has been doing a Farm Systems Trial since 1981 which conducted side by side research on organic and conventional agricultural management practices.  What they have found is that organically managed soils can accumulate about 1,000 pounds of carbon per acre foot of soil each year.  This reveals an incredible opportunity to positively impact carbon sequestration through an emphasis on organic management.

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Jack Kittredge took this idea further in an article in the Summer 2014 issue of the Natural Farmer called Conversion, Quantities, Calculations and Indulgences: A Primer.  He pointed out that if we as farmers can focus on increasing the organic matter in our soils it has an impressive impact on carbon sequestration.  For every 1% increase in organic matter there is the capacity to store over 18 tons of carbon per acre.  I’m part of a group of farms who produce 100% grassfed milk.  Our combined 2000 acres, with an average of 6% organic matter allows us to offset  the carbon emissions of 6,617 Americans or 608,171 Zambians for 1 year.  In comparison, farms who feed higher levels of grain average 3% organic matter in their soils.  If soils worldwide increased their organic matter by 1% we could sequester almost ¾ of the carbon needed to bring us back to the 350 p.p.m  needed for a healthy existence.

My faith as a Christian leads me to ask should we not humble ourselves and get back to some of the basics of nature as God created it for solutions to our problems?   “Speak to the earth and it shall teach thee.” (Job 12:8)  Farming systems that work in harmony with nature are a bright spot in how we can produce food that is not only nutritious and healthful, but also take us a step in the right direction in reducing the atmospheric carbon problem.

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